shall explore the mind and body relationship as perceived by the
age-old Indian philosophers. This Indian Philosophical
realization concerning the mind and body bonding has been
reflected in the sayings of the great western philosophers, from Socrates
Descartes, Spinoza and
relation between the
mind and the body
remains till to-date one of the philosophical problems.
is still a mystery.
relation between the mind and the body is still hotly discussed among
the philosophers and the modern brain scientists.
scientific, medical, and philosophical institutions are still seeking
understanding of the relationship between the mind, the brain and the
are interesting articles on Mind Body Problem (MBP) by different
Getting rid of MBP: Ontological Relativism and the Pragmatic Notion of
Metaphysical Truth by Lydia Mechtenberg.
Why isn't Consciousness Empirically Observable? by Ralph Allis of
Clark Atlanta University
Consciousness and Intentionality of Action by Pär Sundström of Umeå
Problems of Mind as Action by Nikolaj Demjancuk of University of West
Bohemia, Plzen, Czech
On the Philosophy of Cognitive Science by Henrique de Morais Ribeiro
of UNESP, Brazil
MBP is an active subject of the philosophy of cognitive science and
philosophy of mind
is a function of the brain.
is what the brain does.
and Mind are not separate.
cognitive scientists reject mind-Body dualism.
concepts of mind such as consciousness, free will, and independent
thought have been denied by behaviourists and emphasized by humanists.
Behaviourists essentially deny the very existence of mind.
structure and functions of the brain largely determine the nature of
feeling like love a hormone surging through our brain?
us consider some questions that always come to our minds (!):
mental phenomena depend for their existence on physical things
(or vice versa)?
you make a mind? Can you implant a brain? Will the person have the
thought a physical phenomenon?
our Biology improving and coping up with the rapid development of
the modern world?
our glands’ functional ability improving at the same rate as the
stress of the modern world?
body is divisible.
mind is not divisible.
the mind is distinct from the body.
THE MIND WAS SEEN BY THE INDIANS
Indian definition of mind is as old as anything. Their fascinating
imagination about the mind is that it is atomic in nature and
therefore cannot be perceived. But it is a substance and is the
internal sense for the perception of the individual soul and its
qualities, like pleasure and pain. Its existence is inferred. Mind
does not produce any material things. It is only the media to perceive
the internal states.
science obviously does not admit this view. So, the question of
validity does not arise.
mental faculties are dominated by mind, governed by it, and made up of
the word MIND has, in English, mainly an intellectual connotation,
can also be used in the sense of the whole content of consciousness.1
thousands of years, Yoga has been preaching that the body and the mind
are one vital unity - each is acting on the other, but not derived
from each other.
mind is restless and causes disturbance in the body and the senses.1
S. Radhakrishnan in
his book INDIAN PHILOSOPHY wrote:
inability to realize consciousness apart from the body does not imply
that consciousness is the property of the body, for the body may only
be an auxiliary to the realization of the consciousness. Perception of
light is not possible without light. But from this it does not follow
that perception is light or a property thereof.
consciousness were a property of the body, then it must be capable of
being perceived by others than the owner of the body, for we know that
properties of material things could be perceived by others. But the
consciousness of one person is his private property, and cannot be
known by others in the same way as by the self."
mind of Western psychology roughly corresponds in Indian philosophy to
buddhi (intelligence or knowledge), ahankara (ego) and manas
(mind), taken together and often called antahkarana, or inner
to the Indian thinkers (ca 800 BCE),
the mind has three functions – determination, decision and choice.
It is the faculty of perception.
mind has the three aspects of the subconscious,
the conscious and the super-conscious, and the “abnormal” psychic
by the different names of ecstasy, genius, inspiration, madness, are
the workings of the super-conscious mind. 1
during the 19th century,
the reality of unconscious mental activities has been recognized as a
result of the researches of Freud,
Jung and Adler,
and mind is thought of as having unconscious and subconscious depths,
which affect its conscious level. 2
the first account of human mind was given by the ancient Indian
thinkers hundreds of years ago, a lot of research on mind and body
relationship had been carried out in the west, and is still being
carried out but with no positive conclusion yet on the question of
will try to give a brief account of the western researches since the
time of Socrates.
Crito asks Socrates,
”In what way shall we bury you?” Socrates answers,
any way you like, but first you must catch me, the real me. Be a good
cheer, my dear Crito, and say that you are burying my body only”.
what Socrates, Plato and Aristotle said:
great philosophical distinction between mind & body in the Western
thought can be traced to the Greeks, it is to the seminal work of Rene
– 1650), French mathematician, philosopher and physiologist, that
the west owes the first systematic account of the mind and body
published the first extended essay on physiological psychology.
Descartes, we have French philosopher Malebranche, Dutch Spinoza,
German Leibniz and many others who researched on the dualism of mind
what Descartes, Malebranche, Spinoza and Leibniz said:
the 19th century progressed, the problem of the
relationship of mind to brain became very pressing.
Europe became more aware than formerly of Indian
Philosophies, both ancient and modern. 3
major developments occurred – First, understanding the localization
of cerebral function, based on the idea that the brain serves as the
organ of mind. The second involved a growing familiarity with the
thesis that mental events – beliefs, mental suggestions, mesmeric
trance states, psychic traumas and the like – sometimes bring about
radical alterations in the state of the body.
great mind George
English philosopher and psychologist (1817-1878) characterized the
relation – Mental & physical processes are simply different
aspects of one and the same series of psychophysical events. When seen
from the subjective point of view (e.g., when someone is thinking),
the psychophysical series is mental; when seen from the objective
point of view (e.g.; when someone observes what is going on in the
thinking person’s brain), it is physical.
in Germany as a physiological psychology born of a marriage between
the philosophy of the mind, on the one hand and on the other hand
experimental phenomenology that arose within sensory physiology.
GERMAN PHILOSOPHER of the modern world
denied the possibility that psychology could become an empirical
science on two grounds. First, since psychological processes vary in
only one dimension, time, they could not be described mathematically.
Second, since psychological processes are internal and subjective, he
asserted that they could not be laid open to measurement.
in physics, there are no laws in psychology.
has mapped the whole Universe, but it is yet to map our mind or
mind-body problem in the western world has remained essentially
unchanged since Descartes put it forward in 1641.
thing we know is that all activities are happening inside our body –
is whether some external factors influence us?
personally would like to believe:
IS MORE TO FLESH AND BLOOD.